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In the opinion of the FIPR trustee, the government's approach to crypto practices is more in line with a mid-seventies picture of the market, when cryptography was mainly limited to military purposes. In an interview with c't a year ago, Dr. Klaus Büttner of the research and development arm of BMW said that security and authorised access to a vehicle have the highest priority when it comes to the company's online services. The manufacturer has confirmed the security vulnerabilities.

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Multimedia and handsfree functions have been integrated in the so-called Headunit and cellular communication has been moved to a device called the TCB (Telematic Communication Box) which now supports UMTS in addition to GPRS/EDGE connectivity. Using IDA Pro, I was quickly able to identify several encryption and hashing algorithms in the firmware. In a last ditch effort, I analysed a conspicuously random looking block of data included in the firmware.

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That wasn't surprising, seeing as BMW is one of the main backers of NGTP. Knowing that a certain car includes a Combox, an attacker can figure out the VIN as described and then go about activating Remote Services and opening the driver-side door. What would remote unlocking via an emulated cellular network actually look like in practice? His reply to Telepolis, nevertheless, clearly set the encryption policy currently adopted by the cabinet against what was "possibly demanded" by the American side. What is not known is how Reno's demand will be answered. According to Ross Anderson, of the Foundation for Information Policy Research (FIPR), while it was a good thing that key escrow was laid to rest, this does not mark the end of the matter.

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The remaining clause, regarding electronic signatures, is acceptable for Alan Duncan, but in need of a trim. A self-help measure would be to disconnect the Combox or TCB from the antenna. The Americans, it's safe to assume, are perfectly aware of how responsibilities are divided within the German Federal Government. On the other hand, so far I had only looked at the emergency text messages.

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This protection, says the demand, should follow the same standards that have become the norm in other industries. According to persons close to the Federal Minister, however, several letters making the same request have been received, and a reply is now being drafted. According to our informant, the same is not true for issuers especially in India, Japan and the US among others. This step was needed, because NGTP only makes suggestions on how a protocol is built, it does not specify actual implementation details. This check is done with a VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) included in the message. Held on a yearly basis over the first two years, this year two conferences have been held, both as support to the consultation periods stipulated by the government.

Overall, the shadow spokesman voiced many of concerns expressed by the industry's representatives, but curiously skirted over the fact that the current Labour draft is little more than a watered down version of the initial Tory draft compiled back in March 1997, which included compulsory licensing and key escrow (both now dropped). Per exemplum stellte Sun eine Secure Network Access Platform vor, für sichere, stabile und effiziente Netzwerk-Konfiguration sowie ein Crypto Accelerator 4000 Board, das SSL-Transaktionen erheblich beschleunigt.

Credit cards with chips are generally considered secure. However, an investigation in the current issue of c't magazine shows that fraudsters are using cloned cards to great effect. Together with Die Zeit, c't magazin has analysed the software used by fraudsters to clone cards and investigated the underlying weaknesses of the EMV payment process.

They probably just figure a discussion with the Ministry of Justice has a better chance of success. Says Roessler, "today, the use of strong cryptography is the best course of action: it interacts with the controlled transactions obviously in bona fide civil transactions. The notion that an internationally destabilising imbalance of military strength can be caused by free or mass market available encryption software is absurd." Reno's letter has to do nothing with the avowed goals of the crypto coins to invest in 2019 Wassennaar agreement, and much to do with "the attempt to keep in force the electronic surveillance capabilities of American and allied authorities," Roessler concludes.

Critically, this wording might exclude a further spread of copies on CD, or without documentation, so that software is no longer classified as "in the public domain." The task is now to look for a definition for a product which is accessible and freely available to everyone. The Wassenaar agreement describes it as software which was made available "without restrictions on its further distribution." From a legal point of view it designates, however, goods which are free from copyrights. Besides, says Roessler, the results of negotiation in 1998, which put cryptographic mass market software under export control, contradict the actual purpose of the Wassenaar agreement.

A quarter of a century later, cryptographic tools are used by the pay-tv sector, GSM manufacturers, car alarm makers, etc. To analyse the firmware code, I used the tool IDA Pro from Hex-Rays. To analyse the firmware, the flash chip on the adapter board was connected to an STM32 evaluation board with enough I/O pins and a matching I/O voltage of 1.8 Volts. This meant the text message wasn't enough to open the doors and the system required further data from the backend (see diagram).

After the vehicle had received the text message, it took approximately one minute for the systems connected to the main processing unit to boot up. Since I could not find the data that gets sent with the emergency text message in the data I logged on the connection, I assumed that the message gets created and encrypted within the modem itself. The Combox does not implement protection to guard against replay attacks.

And is this because, as Peter Sommer, the special adviser to the trade and industry select committee, pointed out "the main issues are political, not technical"? Unlocking the doors does not leave any traces and is completely inconspicuous even on crowded streets. The IMSI catcher does not need to know the phone number of the target vehicle. In Germany, this includes around 423,000 vehicles; worldwide, this number rises to 2.2 million cars. The first eight characters of this number identify the device (Type Allocation Code, TAC). Since looking for the keys in this case would have been a lot of work, I decided to keep analysing the protocol for the emergency calls instead.

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